Riserpdal® (risperidone) is an atypical antipsychotic agent indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia, of bipolar mania, and of irritability associated with autistic disorder.
RISPERDAL- risperidone tablet
Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Analyses of 17 placebo-controlled trials (modal duration of 10 weeks), largely in patients taking atypical antipsychotic drugs, revealed a risk of death in drug-treated patients of between 1.6 to 1.7 times the risk of death in placebo-treated patients. Over the course of a typical 10-week controlled trial, the rate of death in drug-treated patients was about 4.5%, compared to a rate of about 2.6% in the placebo group. Although the causes of death were varied, most of the deaths appeared to be either cardiovascular (e.g., heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (e.g., pneumonia) in nature. Observational studies suggest that, similar to atypical antipsychotic drugs, treatment with conventional antipsychotic drugs may increase mortality. The extent to which the findings of increased mortality in observational studies may be attributed to the antipsychotic drug as opposed to some characteristic(s) of the patients is not clear. RISPERDAL® (risperidone) is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
RISPERDAL® (risperidone) is indicated for the acute and maintenance treatment of schizophrenia [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].
RISPERDAL® is indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia in adolescents aged 13–17 years [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].
Monotherapy — Adults and Pediatrics
RISPERDAL® is indicated for the short-term treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder in adults and in children and adolescents aged 10–17 years [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].
Combination Therapy – Adults
The combination of RISPERDAL® with lithium or valproate is indicated for the short-term treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder [see Clinical Studies (14.3)].
RISPERDAL® is indicated for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents aged 5–16 years, including symptoms of aggression towards others, deliberate self-injuriousness, temper tantrums, and quickly changing moods [see Clinical Studies (14.4)].
Usual Initial Dose
RISPERDAL® can be administered once or twice daily. Initial dosing is generally 2 mg/day. Dose increases should then occur at intervals not less than 24 hours, in increments of 1–2 mg/day, as tolerated, to a recommended dose of 4–8 mg/day. In some patients, slower titration may be appropriate. Efficacy has been demonstrated in a range of 4–16 mg/day [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. However, doses above 6 mg/day for twice daily dosing were not demonstrated to be more efficacious than lower doses, were associated with more extrapyramidal symptoms and other adverse effects, and are generally not recommended. In a single study supporting once-daily dosing, the efficacy results were generally stronger for 8 mg than for 4 mg. The safety of doses above 16 mg/day has not been evaluated in clinical trials.
While it is unknown how long a patient with schizophrenia should remain on RISPERDAL®, the effectiveness of RISPERDAL® 2 mg/day to 8 mg/day at delaying relapse was demonstrated in a controlled trial in patients who had been clinically stable for at least 4 weeks and were then followed for a period of 1 to 2 years [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. Patients should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for maintenance treatment with an appropriate dose.
The dosage of RISPERDAL® should be initiated at 0.5 mg once daily, administered as a single-daily dose in either the morning or evening. Dosage adjustments, if indicated, should occur at intervals not less than 24 hours, in increments of 0.5 or 1 mg/day, as tolerated, to a recommended dose of 3 mg/day. Although efficacy has been demonstrated in studies of adolescent patients with schizophrenia at doses between 1 and 6 mg/day, no additional benefit was seen above 3 mg/day, and higher doses were associated with more adverse events. Doses higher than 6 mg/day have not been studied.
Patients experiencing persistent somnolence may benefit from administering half the daily dose twice daily.
There are no controlled data to support the longer term use of RISPERDAL® beyond 8 weeks in adolescents with schizophrenia. The physician who elects to use RISPERDAL® for extended periods in adolescents with schizophrenia should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient.
Reinitiation of Treatment in Patients Previously Discontinued
Although there are no data to specifically address reinitiation of treatment, it is recommended that after an interval off RISPERDAL®, the initial titration schedule should be followed.
Switching From Other Antipsychotics
There are no systematically collected data to specifically address switching schizophrenic patients from other antipsychotics to RISPERDAL®, or treating patients with concomitant antipsychotics. While immediate discontinuation of the previous antipsychotic treatment may be acceptable for some schizophrenic patients, more gradual discontinuation may be most appropriate for others. The period of overlapping antipsychotic administration should be minimized. When switching schizophrenic patients from depot antipsychotics, initiate RISPERDAL® therapy in place of the next scheduled injection. The need for continuing existing EPS medication should be re-evaluated periodically.
RISPERDAL® should be administered on a once-daily schedule, starting with 2 mg to 3 mg per day. Dosage adjustments, if indicated, should occur at intervals of not less than 24 hours and in dosage increments/decrements of 1 mg per day, as studied in the short-term, placebo-controlled trials. In these trials, short-term (3 week) anti-manic efficacy was demonstrated in a flexible dosage range of 1–6 mg per day [see Clinical Studies (14.2, 14.3)]. RISPERDAL® doses higher than 6 mg per day were not studied.
The dosage of RISPERDAL® should be initiated at 0.5 mg once daily, administered as a single-daily dose in either the morning or evening. Dosage adjustments, if indicated, should occur at intervals not less than 24 hours, in increments of 0.5 or 1 mg/day, as tolerated, to a recommended dose of 2.5 mg/day. Although efficacy has been demonstrated in studies of pediatric patients with bipolar mania at doses between 0.5 and 6 mg/day, no additional benefit was seen above 2.5 mg/day, and higher doses were associated with more adverse events. Doses higher than 6 mg/day have not been studied.
Patients experiencing persistent somnolence may benefit from administering half the daily dose twice daily.
There is no body of evidence available from controlled trials to guide a clinician in the longer-term management of a patient who improves during treatment of an acute manic episode with RISPERDAL®. While it is generally agreed that pharmacological treatment beyond an acute response in mania is desirable, both for maintenance of the initial response and for prevention of new manic episodes, there are no systematically obtained data to support the use of RISPERDAL® in such longer-term treatment (i.e., beyond 3 weeks). The physician who elects to use RISPERDAL® for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term risks and benefits of the drug for the individual patient.
The safety and effectiveness of RISPERDAL® in pediatric patients with autistic disorder less than 5 years of age have not been established.
The dosage of RISPERDAL® should be individualized according to the response and tolerability of the patient. The total daily dose of RISPERDAL® can be administered once daily, or half the total daily dose can be administered twice daily.
Dosing should be initiated at 0.25 mg per day for patients < 20 kg and 0.5 mg per day for patients ≥ 20 kg. After a minimum of four days from treatment initiation, the dose may be increased to the recommended dose of 0.5 mg per day for patients < 20 kg and 1 mg per day for patients ≥ 20 kg. This dose should be maintained for a minimum of 14 days. In patients not achieving sufficient clinical response, dose increases may be considered at ≥ 2-week intervals in increments of 0.25 mg per day for patients < 20 kg or 0.5 mg per day for patients ≥ 20 kg. Caution should be exercised with dosage for smaller children who weigh less than 15 kg.
In clinical trials, 90% of patients who showed a response (based on at least 25% improvement on ABC-I, [see Clinical Studies (14.4)]) received doses of RISPERDAL® between 0.5 mg and 2.5 mg per day. The maximum daily dose of RISPERDAL® in one of the pivotal trials, when the therapeutic effect reached plateau, was 1 mg in patients < 20 kg, 2.5 mg in patients ≥ 20 kg, or 3 mg in patients > 45 kg. No dosing data is available for children who weighed less than 15 kg.
Once sufficient clinical response has been achieved and maintained, consideration should be given to gradually lowering the dose to achieve the optimal balance of efficacy and safety. The physician who elects to use RISPERDAL® for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term risks and benefits of the drug for the individual patient.
Patients experiencing persistent somnolence may benefit from a once-daily dose administered at bedtime or administering half the daily dose twice daily, or a reduction of the dose.
The recommended initial dose is 0.5 mg twice daily in patients who are elderly or debilitated, patients with severe renal or hepatic impairment, and patients either predisposed to hypotension or for whom hypotension would pose a risk. Dosage increases in these patients should be in increments of no more than 0.5 mg twice daily. Increases to dosages above 1.5 mg twice daily should generally occur at intervals of at least 1 week. In some patients, slower titration may be medically appropriate.
Elderly or debilitated patients, and patients with renal impairment, may have less ability to eliminate RISPERDAL® than normal adults. Patients with impaired hepatic function may have increases in the free fraction of risperidone, possibly resulting in an enhanced effect [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Patients with a predisposition to hypotensive reactions or for whom such reactions would pose a particular risk likewise need to be titrated cautiously and carefully monitored [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.7, 5.17)]. If a once-daily dosing regimen in the elderly or debilitated patient is being considered, it is recommended that the patient be titrated on a twice-daily regimen for 2–3 days at the target dose. Subsequent switches to a once-daily dosing regimen can be done thereafter.
Co-administration of carbamazepine and other enzyme inducers (e.g., phenytoin, rifampin, phenobarbital) with RISPERDAL® would be expected to cause decreases in the plasma concentrations of the sum of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone combined, which could lead to decreased efficacy of RISPERDAL® treatment. The dose of RISPERDAL® needs to be titrated accordingly for patients receiving these enzyme inducers, especially during initiation or discontinuation of therapy with these inducers [see Drug Interactions (7.11)].
Fluoxetine and paroxetine have been shown to increase the plasma concentration of risperidone 2.5–2.8 fold and 3–9 fold, respectively. Fluoxetine did not affect the plasma concentration of 9-hydroxyrisperidone. Paroxetine lowered the concentration of 9-hydroxyrisperidone by about 10%. The dose of RISPERDAL® needs to be titrated accordingly when fluoxetine or paroxetine is co-administered [see Drug Interactions (7.10)].
RISPERDAL® Oral Solution can be administered directly from the calibrated pipette, or can be mixed with a beverage prior to administration. RISPERDAL® Oral Solution is compatible in the following beverages: water, coffee, orange juice, and low-fat milk; it is NOT compatible with either cola or tea.
RISPERDAL® M-TAB® Orally Disintegrating Tablets 0.5 mg, 1 mg, and 2 mg
RISPERDAL® M-TAB® Orally Disintegrating Tablets 0.5 mg, 1 mg, and 2 mg are supplied in blister packs of 4 tablets each.
Do not open the blister until ready to administer. For single tablet removal, separate one of the four blister units by tearing apart at the perforations. Bend the corner where indicated. Peel back foil to expose the tablet. DO NOT push the tablet through the foil because this could damage the tablet.
RISPERDAL® M-TAB® Orally Disintegrating Tablets 3 mg and 4 mg
RISPERDAL® M-TAB® Orally Disintegrating Tablets 3 mg and 4 mg are supplied in a child-resistant pouch containing a blister with 1 tablet each.
The child-resistant pouch should be torn open at the notch to access the blister. Do not open the blister until ready to administer. Peel back foil from the side to expose the tablet. DO NOT push the tablet through the foil, because this could damage the tablet.
Using dry hands, remove the tablet from the blister unit and immediately place the entire RISPERDAL® M-TAB® Orally Disintegrating Tablet on the tongue. The RISPERDAL® M-TAB® Orally Disintegrating Tablet should be consumed immediately, as the tablet cannot be stored once removed from the blister unit. RISPERDAL® M-TAB® Orally Disintegrating Tablets disintegrate in the mouth within seconds and can be swallowed subsequently with or without liquid. Patients should not attempt to split or to chew the tablet.