Adderrall XR, a CNS stimulant, is indicated for the treatment of ADHD. The effectiveness of Adderall XR for long-term use, i.e., for more than 3 weeks in children and 4 weeks in adolescents and adults, has not been systematically evaluated in controlled trials.
ADDERALL XR- dextroamphetamine sulfate, dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate and amphetamine sulfate capsule, extended release
Shire US Manufacturing Inc.
WARNING: POTENTIAL FOR ABUSE
Amphetamines have a high potential for abuse . Administration of amphetamines for prolonged periods of time may lead to drug dependence. Pay particular attention to the possibility of subjects obtaining amphetamines for non-therapeutic use or distribution to others and the drugs should be prescribed or dispensed sparingly [ see DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE (9) ].
Misuse of amphetamine may cause sudden death and serious cardiovascular adverse reactions.
ADDERALL XR® is indicated for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
The efficacy of ADDERALL XR in the treatment of ADHD was established on the basis of two controlled trials in children aged 6 to 12, one controlled trial in adolescents aged 13 to 17, and one controlled trial in adults who met DSM-IV® criteria for ADHD [see CLINICAL STUDIES (14)].
A diagnosis of ADHD (DSM-IV®) implies the presence of hyperactive-impulsive or inattentive symptoms that caused impairment and were present before age 7 years. The symptoms must cause clinically significant impairment, e.g., in social, academic, or occupational functioning, and be present in two or more settings, e.g., school (or work) and at home. The symptoms must not be better accounted for by another mental disorder. For the Inattentive Type, at least six of the following symptoms must have persisted for at least 6 months: lack of attention to details/careless mistakes; lack of sustained attention; poor listener; failure to follow through on tasks; poor organization; avoids tasks requiring sustained mental effort; loses things; easily distracted; forgetful. For the Hyperactive-Impulsive Type, at least six of the following symptoms must have persisted for at least 6 months: fidgeting/squirming; leaving seat; inappropriate running/climbing; difficulty with quiet activities; “on the go;” excessive talking; blurting answers; can’t wait turn; intrusive. The Combined Type requires both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive criteria to be met.
Special Diagnostic Considerations
Specific etiology of this syndrome is unknown, and there is no single diagnostic test. Adequate diagnosis requires the use not only of medical but of special psychological, educational, and social resources. Learning may or may not be impaired. The diagnosis must be based upon a complete history and evaluation of the patient and not solely on the presence of the required number of DSM-IV® characteristics.
Need for Comprehensive Treatment Program
ADDERALL XR is indicated as an integral part of a total treatment program for ADHD that may include other measures (psychological, educational, social) for patients with this syndrome. Drug treatment may not be indicated for all patients with this syndrome. Stimulants are not intended for use in the child who exhibits symptoms secondary to environmental factors and/or other primary psychiatric disorders, including psychosis. Appropriate educational placement is essential and psychosocial intervention is often helpful. When remedial measures alone are insufficient, the decision to prescribe stimulant medication will depend upon the physician’s assessment of the chronicity and severity of the child’s symptoms.
The effectiveness of ADDERALL XR for long-term use, i.e., for more than 3 weeks in children and 4 weeks in adolescents and adults, has not been systematically evaluated in controlled trials. Therefore, the physician who elects to use ADDERALL XR for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient.
Individualize the dosage according to the therapeutic needs and response of the patient. Administer ADDERALL XR at the lowest effective dosage.
Based on bioequivalence data, patients taking divided doses of immediate-release ADDERALL, (for example, twice daily), may be switched to ADDERALL XR at the same total daily dose taken once daily. Titrate at weekly intervals to appropriate efficacy and tolerability as indicated.
ADDERALL XR capsules may be taken whole, or the capsule may be opened and the entire contents sprinkled on applesauce. If the patient is using the sprinkle administration method, the sprinkled applesauce should be consumed immediately; it should not be stored. Patients should take the applesauce with sprinkled beads in its entirety without chewing. The dose of a single capsule should not be divided. The contents of the entire capsule should be taken, and patients should not take anything less than one capsule per day.
ADDERALL XR may be taken with or without food.
ADDERALL XR should be given upon awakening. Afternoon doses should be avoided because of the potential for insomnia.
Where possible, ADDERALL XR therapy should be interrupted occasionally to determine if there is a recurrence of behavioral symptoms sufficient to require continued therapy.
In children with ADHD who are 6-12 years of age and are either starting treatment for the first time or switching from another medication, start with 10 mg once daily in the morning; daily dosage may be adjusted in increments of 5 mg or 10 mg at weekly intervals. When in the judgment of the clinician a lower initial dose is appropriate, patients may begin treatment with 5 mg once daily in the morning. The maximum recommended dose for children is 30 mg/day; doses greater than 30 mg/day of ADDERALL XR have not been studied in children. ADDERALL XR has not been studied in children under 6 years of age.
The recommended starting dose for adolescents with ADHD who are 13-17 years of age and are either starting treatment for the first time or switching from another medication is 10 mg/day. The dose may be increased to 20 mg/day after one week if ADHD symptoms are not adequately controlled.
In adults with ADHD who are either starting treatment for the first time or switching from another medication, the recommended dose is 20 mg/day.
ADDERALL XR 5 mg Capsules: Clear/blue (imprinted ADDERALL XR 5 mg)
ADDERALL XR 10 mg Capsules: Blue/blue (imprinted ADDERALL XR 10 mg)
ADDERALL XR 15 mg Capsules: Blue/white (imprinted ADDERALL XR 15 mg)
ADDERALL XR 20 mg Capsules: Orange/orange (imprinted ADDERALL XR 20 mg)
ADDERALL XR 25 mg Capsules: Orange/white (imprinted ADDERALL XR 25 mg)
ADDERALL XR 30 mg Capsules: Natural/orange (imprinted ADDERALL XR 30 mg)
ADDERALL XR administration is contraindicated in patients with the following conditions:
- Advanced arteriosclerosis
- Symptomatic cardiovascular disease
- Moderate to severe hypertension
- Known hypersensitivity or idiosyncrasy to the sympathomimetic amines (e.g., anaphylaxis, angioedema, serious skin rashes) [see ADVERSE REACTIONS (6.2)]
- Agitated states
- History of drug abuse
- During or within 14 days following the administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (hypertensive crises may result) [see DRUG INTERACTIONS (7.1)]
Sudden Death and Pre-existing Structural Cardiac Abnormalities or Other Serious Heart Problems
Children and Adolescents
Sudden death has been reported in association with CNS stimulant treatment at usual doses in children and adolescents with structural cardiac abnormalities or other serious heart problems. Although some serious heart problems alone carry an increased risk of sudden death, stimulant products generally should not be used in children or adolescents with known serious structural cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, serious heart rhythm abnormalities, or other serious cardiac problems that may place them at increased vulnerability to the sympathomimetic effects of a stimulant drug [see CONTRAINDICATIONS (4)].
Sudden deaths, stroke, and myocardial infarction have been reported in adults taking stimulant drugs at usual doses for ADHD. Although the role of stimulants in these adult cases is also unknown, adults have a greater likelihood than children of having serious structural cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, serious heart rhythm abnormalities, coronary artery disease, or other serious cardiac problems. Adults with such abnormalities should also generally not be treated with stimulant drugs [see CONTRAINDICATIONS (4)].
Hypertension and other Cardiovascular Conditions
Stimulant medications cause a modest increase in average blood pressure (about 2-4 mmHg) and average heart rate (about 3-6 bpm), and individuals may have larger increases. While the mean changes alone would not be expected to have short-term consequences, all patients should be monitored for larger changes in heart rate and blood pressure. Caution is indicated in treating patients whose underlying medical conditions might be compromised by increases in blood pressure or heart rate, e.g., those with pre-existing hypertension, heart failure, recent myocardial infarction, or ventricular arrhythmia [see CONTRAINDICATIONS (4) and ADVERSE REACTIONS (6)].
Assessing Cardiovascular Status in Patients being Treated with Stimulant Medications
Children, adolescents, or adults who are being considered for treatment with stimulant medications should have a careful history (including assessment for a family history of sudden death or ventricular arrhythmia) and physical exam to assess for the presence of cardiac disease, and should receive further cardiac evaluation if findings suggest such disease (e.g. electrocardiogram and echocardiogram). Patients who develop symptoms such as exertional chest pain, unexplained syncope, or other symptoms suggestive of cardiac disease during stimulant treatment should undergo a prompt cardiac evaluation.
Administration of stimulants may exacerbate symptoms of behavior disturbance and thought disorder in patients with pre-existing psychotic disorder.
Particular care should be taken in using stimulants to treat ADHD patients with comorbid bipolar disorder because of concern for possible induction of mixed/manic episode in such patients. Prior to initiating treatment with a stimulant, patients with comorbid depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder; such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression.
Emergence of New Psychotic or Manic Symptoms
Treatment emergent psychotic or manic symptoms, e.g., hallucinations, delusional thinking, or mania in children and adolescents without prior history of psychotic illness or mania can be caused by stimulants at usual doses. If such symptoms occur, consideration should be given to a possible causal role of the stimulant, and discontinuation of treatment may be appropriate. In a pooled analysis of multiple short-term, placebo-controlled studies, such symptoms occurred in about 0.1% (4 patients with events out of 3482 exposed to methylphenidate or amphetamine for several weeks at usual doses) of stimulant-treated patients compared to 0 in placebo-treated patients.
Aggressive behavior or hostility is often observed in children and adolescents with ADHD, and has been reported in clinical trials and the postmarketing experience of some medications indicated for the treatment of ADHD. Although there is no systematic evidence that stimulants cause aggressive behavior or hostility, patients beginning treatment for ADHD should be monitored for the appearance of or worsening of aggressive behavior or hostility.
Monitor growth in children during treatment with stimulants. Patients who are not growing or gaining weight as expected may need to have their treatment interrupted.
Careful follow-up of weight and height in children ages 7 to 10 years who were randomized to either methylphenidate or non-medication treatment groups over 14 months, as well as in naturalistic subgroups of newly methylphenidate-treated and non-medication treated children over 36 months (to the ages of 10 to 13 years), suggests that consistently medicated children (i.e., treatment for 7 days per week throughout the year) have a temporary slowing in growth rate (on average, a total of about 2 cm less growth in height and 2.7 kg less growth in weight over 3 years), without evidence of growth rebound during this period of development.
In a controlled trial of ADDERALL XR in adolescents, mean weight change from baseline within the initial 4 weeks of therapy was -1.1 lbs. and -2.8 lbs., respectively, for patients receiving 10 mg and 20 mg ADDERALL XR. Higher doses were associated with greater weight loss within the initial 4 weeks of treatment. Chronic use of amphetamines can be expected to cause a similar suppression of growth.
There is some clinical evidence that stimulants may lower the convulsive threshold in patients with prior history of seizures, in patients with prior EEG abnormalities in the absence of seizures, and very rarely, in patients without a history of seizures and no prior EEG evidence of seizures. In the presence of seizures, ADDERALL XR should be discontinued.
Difficulties with accommodation and blurring of vision have been reported with stimulant treatment.
Amphetamines have been reported to exacerbate motor and phonic tics and Tourette’s syndrome. Therefore, clinical evaluation for tics and Tourette’s syndrome in patients and their families should precede use of stimulant medications.
The least amount of amphetamine feasible should be prescribed or dispensed at one time in order to minimize the possibility of overdosage. ADDERALL XR should be used with caution in patients who use other sympathomimetic drugs.
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
The premarketing development program for ADDERALL XR included exposures in a total of 1315 participants in clinical trials (635 pediatric patients, 350 adolescent patients, 248 adult patients, and 82 healthy adult subjects). Of these, 635 patients (ages 6 to 12) were evaluated in two controlled clinical studies, one open-label clinical study, and two single-dose clinical pharmacology studies (N= 40). Safety data on all patients are included in the discussion that follows. Adverse reactions were assessed by collecting adverse reactions, results of physical examinations, vital signs, weights, laboratory analyses, and ECGs.
Adverse reactions during exposure were obtained primarily by general inquiry and recorded by clinical investigators using terminology of their own choosing. Consequently, it is not possible to provide a meaningful estimate of the proportion of individuals experiencing adverse reactions without first grouping similar types of reactions into a smaller number of standardized event categories. In the tables and listings that follow, COSTART terminology has been used to classify reported adverse reactions.
The stated frequencies of adverse reactions represent the proportion of individuals who experienced, at least once, a treatment-emergent adverse event of the type listed.
Adverse Reactions Associated with Discontinuation of Treatment
In two placebo-controlled studies of up to 5 weeks duration among children with ADHD, 2.4% (10/425) of ADDERALL XR-treated patients discontinued due to adverse reactions (including 3 patients with loss of appetite, one of whom also reported insomnia) compared to 2.7% (7/259) receiving placebo.
The most frequent adverse reactions associated with discontinuation of ADDERALL XR in controlled and uncontrolled, multiple-dose clinical trials of children (N=595) were anorexia (loss of appetite) (2.9%), insomnia (1.5%), weight loss (1.2%), emotional lability (1%), and depression (0.7%). Over half of these patients were exposed to ADDERALL XR for 12 months or more.
In a separate placebo-controlled 4-week study in adolescents with ADHD, five patients (2.1%) discontinued treatment due to adverse events among ADDERALL XR-treated patients (N=233) compared to none who received placebo (N=54). The most frequent adverse event leading to discontinuation and considered to be drug-related (i.e. leading to discontinuation in at least 1% of ADDERALL XR-treated patients and at a rate at least twice that of placebo) was insomnia (1.3%, n=3).
In one placebo-controlled 4-week study among adults with ADHD with doses 20 mg to 60 mg, 23 patients (12.0%) discontinued treatment due to adverse events among ADDERALL XR-treated patients (N=191) compared to one patient (1.6%) who received placebo (N=64). The most frequent adverse events leading to discontinuation and considered to be drug-related (i.e. leading to discontinuation in at least 1% of ADDERALL XR-treated patients and at a rate at least twice that of placebo) were insomnia (5.2%, n=10), anxiety (2.1%, n=4), nervousness (1.6%, n=3), dry mouth (1.6%, n=3), anorexia (1.6%, n=3), tachycardia (1.6%, n=3), headache (1.6%, n=3), and asthenia (1.0%, n=2).
Adverse Reactions Occurring in Controlled Trials
Adverse reactions reported in a 3-week clinical trial of children and a 4-week clinical trial in adolescents and adults, respectively, treated with ADDERALL XR or placebo are presented in the tables below.
|Body System||Preferred Term|| ADDERALL XR |
| Placebo |
Abdominal Pain (stomachache) |
Loss of Appetite |
|Body System||Preferred Term|| ADDERALL XR |
| Placebo |
*Included doses up to 40 mg |
a Appears the same due to rounding
b Dose-related adverse reactions
Note: The following reactions did not meet the criterion for inclusion in Table 2 but were reported by 2% to 4% of adolescent patients receiving ADDERALL XR with a higher incidence than patients receiving placebo in this study: accidental injury, asthenia (fatigue), dry mouth, dyspepsia, emotional lability, nausea, somnolence, and vomiting.
|General||Abdominal Pain (stomachache)||11%||2%|
|Digestive System||Loss of Appetite b||36%||2%|
Insomnia b |
|Metabolic/Nutritional||Weight Loss b||9%||0%|
|Body System||Preferred Term|| ADDERALL XR |
| Placebo |
*Included doses up to 60 mg. |
Note: The following reactions did not meet the criterion for inclusion in Table 3 but were reported by 2% to 4% of adult patients receiving ADDERALL XR with a higher incidence than patients receiving placebo in this study: infection, photosensitivity reaction, constipation, tooth disorder (e.g., teeth clenching, tooth infection), emotional lability, libido decreased, somnolence, speech disorder (e.g., stuttering, excessive speech), palpitation, twitching, dyspnea, sweating, dysmenorrhea, and impotence.
Dry Mouth |
Loss of Appetite
|Urogenital System||Urinary Tract Infection||5%||0%|
Hypertension [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.1)]
In a controlled 4-week outpatient clinical study of adolescents with ADHD, isolated systolic blood pressure elevations ≥15 mmHg were observed in 7/64 (11%) placebo-treated patients and 7/100 (7%) patients receiving ADDERALL XR 10 or 20 mg. Isolated elevations in diastolic blood pressure ≥ 8 mmHg were observed in 16/64 (25%) placebo-treated patients and 22/100 (22%) ADDERALL XR-treated patients. Similar results were observed at higher doses.
In a single-dose pharmacokinetic study in 23 adolescents with ADHD, isolated increases in systolic blood pressure (above the upper 95% CI for age, gender, and stature) were observed in 2/17 (12%) and 8/23 (35%), subjects administered 10 mg and 20 mg ADDERALL XR, respectively. Higher single doses were associated with a greater increase in systolic blood pressure. All increases were transient, appeared maximal at 2 to 4 hours post dose and not associated with symptoms.
In This Section
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