Vyvanse, a prodrug of the CNS stimulant dextroamphetamine, is indicated for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Vyvanse is indicated as an integral part of a total treatment program for ADHD that may include other measures (psychological, educational, social) for patients with this syndrome.
VYVANSE- lisdexamfetamine dimesylate capsule
WARNING: POTENTIAL FOR ABUSE
AMPHETAMINES HAVE A HIGH POTENTIAL FOR ABUSE. ADMINISTRATION OF AMPHETAMINES FOR PROLONGED PERIODS OF TIME MAY LEAD TO DRUG DEPENDENCE. PARTICULAR ATTENTION SHOULD BE PAID TO THE POSSIBILITY OF SUBJECTS OBTAINING AMPHETAMINES FOR NON-THERAPEUTIC USE OR DISTRIBUTION TO OTHERS AND THE DRUGS SHOULD BE PRESCRIBED OR DISPENSED SPARINGLY.
MISUSE OF AMPHETAMINES MAY CAUSE SUDDEN DEATH AND SERIOUS CARDIOVASCULAR ADVERSE EVENTS.
Vyvanse® is indicated for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
The efficacy of Vyvanse in the treatment of ADHD was established on the basis of two controlled trials in children aged 6 to 12, one controlled trial in adolescents aged 13 to 17, and two controlled trials in adults who met DSM-IV-TR® criteria for ADHD [see CLINICAL STUDIES (14)].
A diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; DSM-IV®) implies the presence of hyperactive-impulsive and/or inattentive symptoms that cause impairment and were present before the age of 7 years. The symptoms must cause clinically significant impairment, e.g. in social, academic, or occupational functioning, and be present in two or more settings, e.g. school (or work) and at home. The symptoms must not be better accounted for by another mental disorder. For the Inattentive Type, at least 6 of the following symptoms must have persisted for at least 6 months: lack of attention to details/careless mistakes; lack of sustained attention; poor listener; failure to follow through on tasks; poor organization; avoids tasks requiring sustained mental effort; loses things; easily distracted; forgetful. For the Hyperactive-Impulsive Type, at least 6 of the following symptoms (or adult equivalent symptoms) must have persisted for at least 6 months: fidgeting/squirming; leaving seat; inappropriate running/climbing; difficulty with quiet activities; “on the go”; excessive talking; blurting answers; can’t wait turn; intrusive. The Combined Type requires both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive criteria to be met.
Special Diagnostic Considerations
Specific etiology of this syndrome is unknown, and there is no single diagnostic test. Adequate diagnosis requires the use not only of medical but also of special psychological, educational, and social resources. Learning may or may not be impaired. The diagnosis must be based upon a complete history and evaluation of the patient and not solely on the presence of the required number of DSM-IV characteristics.
Need for Comprehensive Treatment Program
Vyvanse is indicated as an integral part of a total treatment program for ADHD that may include other measures (psychological, educational, social) for patients with this syndrome. Drug treatment may not be indicated for all patients with this syndrome. Stimulants are not intended for use in patients who exhibit symptoms secondary to environmental factors and/or other primary psychiatric disorders, including psychosis. Appropriate educational/vocational placement is essential and psychosocial intervention is often helpful. When remedial measures alone are insufficient, the decision to prescribe stimulant medication will depend upon the physician’s assessment of the chronicity and severity of the patient’s symptoms and on the level of functional impairment.
The effectiveness of Vyvanse for long-term use, i.e., for more than 4 weeks, has not been systematically evaluated in controlled trials. Therefore, the physician who elects to use Vyvanse for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient.
Dosage should be individualized according to the therapeutic needs and response of the patient. Vyvanse should be administered at the lowest effective dosage.
In patients who are either starting treatment for the first time or switching from another medication, 30 mg once daily in the morning is the recommended dose. If the decision is made in the judgment of the clinician to increase the dose beyond 30 mg/day, daily dosage may be adjusted in increments of 10 mg or 20 mg at approximately weekly intervals. The maximum recommended dose is 70 mg/day; doses greater than 70 mg/day of Vyvanse have not been studied. Vyvanse has not been studied in children under 6 years of age.
Vyvanse should be taken in the morning. Afternoon doses should be avoided because of the potential for insomnia.
Vyvanse may be taken with or without food.
Vyvanse capsules may be taken whole, or the capsule may be opened and the entire contents dissolved in a glass of water. The solution should be consumed immediately and should not be stored. The dose of a single capsule should not be divided. The contents of the entire capsule should be taken, and patients should not take anything less than one capsule per day.
Where possible, drug administration should be interrupted occasionally to determine if there is a recurrence of behavioral symptoms sufficient to require continued treatment.
Vyvanse capsules 20 mg: ivory body/ivory cap (imprinted with NRP104 or S489 and 20 mg)
Vyvanse capsules 30 mg: white body/orange cap (imprinted with NRP104 or S489 and 30 mg)
Vyvanse capsules 40 mg: white body/blue green cap (imprinted with NRP104 or S489 and 40 mg)
Vyvanse capsules 50 mg: white body/blue cap (imprinted with NRP104 or S489 and 50 mg)
Vyvanse capsules 60 mg: aqua blue body/aqua blue cap (imprinted with NRP104 or S489 and 60 mg)
Vyvanse capsules 70 mg: blue body/orange cap (imprinted with NRP104 or S489 and 70 mg)
- Advanced arteriosclerosis, symptomatic cardiovascular disease, moderate to severe hypertension, hyperthyroidism, known hypersensitivity or idiosyncratic reaction to sympathomimetic amines, glaucoma
- Agitated states
- Patients with a history of drug abuse
- During or within 14 days following the administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (hypertensive crises may result) [See Drug Interactions (7.3)]
Sudden Death and Pre-existing Structural Cardiac Abnormalities or Other Serious Heart Problems
Children and Adolescents
Sudden death has been reported in association with CNS stimulant treatment at usual doses in children and adolescents with structural cardiac abnormalities or other serious heart problems. Although some serious heart problems alone carry an increased risk of sudden death, stimulant products generally should not be used in children or adolescents with known serious structural cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, serious heart rhythm abnormalities, or other serious cardiac problems that may place them at increased vulnerability to the sympathomimetic effects of a stimulant drug [see CONTRAINDICATIONS (4)].
Sudden death, stroke, and myocardial infarction have been reported in adults taking stimulant drugs at usual doses for ADHD. Although the role of stimulants in these adult cases is unknown, adults have a greater likelihood than children of having serious structural cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, serious heart rhythm abnormalities, coronary artery disease, or other serious cardiac problems. Adults with such abnormalities should also generally not be treated with stimulant drugs [see CONTRAINDICATIONS (4)].
Hypertension and Other Cardiovascular Conditions
Stimulant medications cause a modest increase in average blood pressure (about 2-4 mm Hg) and average heart rate (about 3-6 bpm) and individuals may have larger increases. While the mean changes alone would not be expected to have short-term consequences, all patients should be monitored for larger changes in heart rate and blood pressure. Caution is indicated in treating patients whose underlying medical conditions might be compromised by increases in blood pressure or heart rate, e.g. those with pre-existing hypertension, heart failure, recent myocardial infarction, or ventricular arrhythmia [see CONTRAINDICATIONS (4)].
Assessing Cardiovascular Status in Patients Being Treated with Stimulant Medications
Children, adolescents, or adults who are being considered for treatment with stimulant medications should have a careful history (including assessment for a family history of sudden death or ventricular arrhythmia) and physical exam to assess for the presence of cardiac disease, and should receive further cardiac evaluation if findings suggest such disease (e.g. electrocardiogram and echocardiogram). Patients who develop symptoms such as exertional chest pain, unexplained syncope, or other symptoms suggestive of cardiac disease during stimulant treatment should undergo a prompt cardiac evaluation.
Administration of stimulants may exacerbate symptoms of behavior disturbance and thought disorder in patients with a pre-existing psychotic disorder.
Particular care should be taken in using stimulants to treat ADHD in patients with comorbid bipolar disorder because of concern for possible induction of a mixed/manic episode in such patients. Prior to initiating treatment with a stimulant, patients with comorbid depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder. Such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression.
Emergence of New Psychotic or Manic Symptoms
Treatment-emergent psychotic or manic symptoms, e.g. hallucinations, delusional thinking, or mania in children and adolescents without a prior history of psychotic illness or mania, can be caused by stimulants at usual doses. If such symptoms occur, consideration should be given to a possible causal role of the stimulant, and discontinuation of treatment may be appropriate. In a pooled analysis of multiple short-term, placebo-controlled studies, such symptoms occurred in about 0.1% (4 patients with events out of 3482 exposed to methylphenidate or amphetamine for several weeks at usual doses) of stimulant-treated patients compared to 0 in placebo-treated patients.
Aggressive behavior or hostility is often observed in children and adolescents with ADHD, and has been reported in clinical trials and the postmarketing experience of some medications indicated for the treatment of ADHD. Although there is no systematic evidence that stimulants cause aggressive behavior or hostility, patients beginning treatment of ADHD should be monitored for the appearance of, or worsening of, aggressive behavior or hostility.
There is some clinical evidence that stimulants may lower the convulsive threshold in patients with prior history of seizures, in patients with prior EEG abnormalities in absence of seizures, and, very rarely, in patients without a history of seizures and no prior EEG evidence of seizures. In the presence of seizures, the drug should be discontinued.
Difficulties with accommodation and blurring of vision have been reported with stimulant treatment.
Amphetamines have been reported to exacerbate motor and phonic tics and Tourette’s syndrome. Therefore, clinical evaluation for tics and Tourette’s syndrome should precede use of stimulant medications.
In a controlled trial of Vyvanse in children ages 6 to 12 years, mean weight loss from baseline after 4 weeks of therapy was -0.9, -1.9, and -2.5 lbs., respectively, for patients receiving 30 mg, 50 mg, and 70 mg of Vyvanse, compared to a 1 lb weight gain for patients receiving placebo. Higher doses were associated with greater weight loss with 4 weeks of treatment. Careful follow-up for weight in children ages 6 to 12 years who received Vyvanse over 12 months suggests that consistently medicated children (i.e. treatment for 7 days per week throughout the year) have a slowing in growth rate, measured by body weight as demonstrated by an age- and sex-normalized mean change from baseline in percentile, of -13.4 over 1 year (average percentiles at baseline and 12 months were 60.6 and 47.2, respectively). In a 4-week controlled trial of Vyvanse in adolescents ages 13 to 17 years, mean weight loss from baseline to endpoint was -2.7, -4.3 and -4.8 lbs., respectively, for patients receiving 30 mg, 50 mg, and 70 mg of Vyvanse, compared to a 2.0 lb weight gain for patients receiving placebo.
Careful follow-up of weight and height in children ages 7 to 10 years who were randomized to either methylphenidate or non-medication treatment groups over 14 months, as well as in naturalistic subgroups of newly methylphenidate-treated and non-medication treated children over 36 months (to the ages of 10 to 13 years), suggests that consistently medicated children (i.e. treatment for 7 days per week throughout the year) have a temporary slowing in growth rate (on average, a total of about 2 cm less growth in height and 2.7 kg less growth in weight over 3 years), without evidence of growth rebound during this period of development. In a controlled trial of amphetamine (d- to l-enantiomer ratio of 3:1) in adolescents, mean weight change from baseline within the initial 4 weeks of therapy was -1.1 lbs. and -2.8 lbs., respectively, for patients receiving 10 mg and 20 mg of amphetamine. Higher doses were associated with greater weight loss within the initial 4 weeks of treatment.
Therefore, growth should be monitored during treatment with stimulants, and patients who are not growing or gaining weight as expected may need to have their treatment interrupted.
The least amount of amphetamine feasible should be prescribed or dispensed at one time in order to minimize the possibility of overdosage. Vyvanse should be used with caution in patients who use other sympathomimetic drugs.
The premarketing development program for Vyvanse included exposures in a total of 995 participants in clinical trials (348 pediatric patients aged 6 to 12 years, 233 adolescent patients aged 13 to 17 years, 358 adult patients and 56 healthy adult subjects). Of these, 348 pediatric (aged 6 to 12) patients were evaluated in two controlled clinical studies (one parallel-group and one crossover), one open-label extension study, and one single-dose clinical pharmacology study, 233 adolescent (aged 13 to 17) patients were evaluated in one controlled clinical study, and 358 adult patients were evaluated in one controlled clinical study and one open-label extension study. The information included in this section is based on data from the 4-week parallel-group controlled clinical studies in pediatric and adult patients with ADHD. Adverse reactions were assessed by collecting adverse events, results of physical examinations, vital signs, weights, laboratory analyses, and ECGs.
Adverse reactions during exposure were obtained primarily by general inquiry and recorded by clinical investigators using terminology of their own choosing. Consequently, it is not possible to provide a meaningful estimate of the proportion of individuals experiencing adverse reactions without first grouping similar types of reactions into a smaller number of standardized reactions categories. In the tables and listings that follow, MedDRA terminology has been used to classify reported adverse reactions.
The stated frequencies of adverse reactions represent the proportion of individuals who experienced a treatment-emergent adverse reaction of the type listed at least once.
Adverse Reactions Associated with Discontinuation of Treatment in Clinical Trials
In the controlled pediatric (aged 6 to 12) trial, 9% (20/218) of Vyvanse-treated patients discontinued due to adverse reactions compared to 1% (1/72) who received placebo. The most frequent adverse events leading to discontinuation and considered to be drug-related (i.e. leading to discontinuation in at least 1% of Vyvanse-treated patients and at a rate at least twice that of placebo) were ECG voltage criteria for ventricular hypertrophy, tic, vomiting, psychomotor hyperactivity, insomnia, and rash (2/218 each; 1%).
In the controlled adolescent (aged 13 to 17) trial, 4% (10/233) of Vyvanse-treated patients discontinued due to adverse events compared to 1% (1/77) who received placebo. The most frequent adverse reactions leading to discontinuation and considered to be drug-related were irritability (3/233; 1%), decreased appetite (2/233; 1%), and insomnia (2/233; 1%).
In the controlled adult trial, 6% (21/358) of Vyvanse-treated patients discontinued due to adverse events compared to 2% (1/62) who received placebo. The most frequent adverse events leading to discontinuation and considered to be drug-related (i.e. leading to discontinuation in at least 1% of Vyvanse-treated patients and at a rate at least twice that of placebo) were insomnia (8/358; 2%), tachycardia (3/358; 1%), irritability (2/358; 1%), hypertension (4/358; 1%), headache (2/358; 1%), anxiety (2/358; 1%), and dyspnea (3/358; 1%).
Adverse Reactions Occurring at an Incidence of 2% or More Among Vyvanse Treated Patients in Clinical Trials
Adverse reactions reported in the controlled trials in pediatric (aged 6 to 17 years) and adult patients treated with Vyvanse or placebo are presented in Tables 1, 2, and 3 below. The prescriber should be aware that these figures cannot be used to predict the incidence of adverse reactions in the course of usual medical practice where patient characteristics and other factors differ from those which prevailed in the clinical trials. Similarly, the cited frequencies cannot be compared with figures obtained from other clinical investigations involving different treatment uses and investigators. The cited figures, however, do provide the prescribing physician with some basis for estimating the relative contribution of drug and non-drug factors to the adverse reaction incidence rate in the population studied.
Table 1 Adverse Reactions Reported by 2% or More of Children (Aged 6 to 12 Years) Taking Vyvanse in a 4-Week Clinical Trial
|Body System||Preferred Term||Vyvanse (n=218)||Placebo (n=72)|
|Gastrointestinal Disorders||Abdominal Pain Upper||12%||6%|
|General Disorder and Administration Site Conditions||Pyrexia||2%||1%|
|Metabolism and Nutrition||Decreased Appetite||39%||4%|
|Nervous System Disorders||Dizziness||5%||0%|
|Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders||Rash||3%||0%|
a Insomnia includes the following preferred terms reported in the study: Initial Insomnia, Insomnia.
Note: This table includes those reactions for which the incidence in patients taking Vyvanse is at least twice the incidence in patients taking placebo.
|Body System||Preferred Term||Vyvanse (n=233)||Placebo (n=77)|
|b Insomnia includes the following preferred terms reported in the study: Initial Insomnia, Insomnia. |
Note: This table includes those reactions for which the incidence in patients taking Vyvanse is at least twice the incidence in patients taking placebo.
|Gastrointestinal Disorders||Dry Mouth||4%||1%|
|Metabolism and Nutrition||Decreased Appetite||34%||3%|
Table 3 Adverse Reactions Reported by 2% or More of Adult Patients Taking Vyvanse in a 4-Week Clinical Trial
|Body System||Preferred Term||Vyvanse (n=358)||Placebo (n=62)|
|Gastrointestinal Disorders||Dry Mouth||26%||3%|
|General Disorder and Administration Site Conditions||Feeling Jittery||4%||0%|
|Investigations||Blood Pressure Increased||3%||0%|
|Heart Rate Increased||2%||0%|
|Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders||Decreased Appetite||27%||3%|
|Nervous System Disorders||Tremor||2%||0%|
|Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders||Dyspnea||2%||0%|
|Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders||Hyperhidrosis||3%||0%|
c Insomnia includes the following preferred terms reported in the study: Initial Insomnia, Insomnia, Middle Insomnia.
Note: This table includes those events for which the incidence in patients taking Vyvanse is at least twice the incidence in patients taking placebo.
In addition, adverse reactions observed at a rate of less than 2% included decreased libido and erectile dysfunction.
Weight Loss — In the controlled adult trial, mean weight loss after 4 weeks of therapy was 2.8 lbs, 3.1 lbs, and 4.3 lbs, for patients receiving final doses of 30 mg, 50 mg, and 70 mg of Vyvanse, respectively, compared to a mean weight gain of 0.5 lbs for patients receiving placebo.
In This Section
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